Thì QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH

* Cấu trúc củthì QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH: S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE

* Cách dùng thì QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH:

– Hành động đã bắt đầu và kết thúc, trước một hành động khác trong quá khứ, có thể dùng để giải thích lý do

By the time Anne arrived at the airport, the airplane had already left.
As soon as you had finished cooking, someone knocked on the door.
His wife had just put the washing out when the rain began pouring down.
My friend did not have any books because he had lost his packback.
The beggar had eaten lunch; therefore, he wasn’t tremendously hungry.

– Hành động kéo dài cho đến 1 mốc thời gian cụ thể trong quá khứ, chưa kết thúc tại mốc thời gian đó (thường dùng với for và since)

Had you learned English before moving to the United States?
When Na and Ti got married, they had known each other for 3 weeks.
We did not want to move: we had lived in Da Nang since we were 10.
The kids were very tired as they had played outside all morning.

– Nhấn mạnh số lần một hành động đã diễn ra, tính điểm 1 thời điểm trong quá khứ

My aunts and uncles had published 5 articles, and they were working on another one.
Mr. Nguyen knew Nha Trang very well because he had been to the city many times.

– Trải nghiệm từ trước đến 1 mốc thời gian cụ thể trong quá khứ

My sixteenth birthday was the most wonderful day I had ever had.
I had never been to a restaurant before last night.
Had you ever thought about studying abroad before?

– Tường thuật gián tiép những suy nghĩ, lời lẽ trong quá khứ

His father thought he had paid the bill, but he was wrong.
Their uncle wondered why he had been treated unfairly.
The prince announced that he had resigned his claim to the throne.
He told me that he had not lied to his teacher, but I knew he had.

– Ao ước trong quá khứ, giả sử đã xảy ra trong quá khứ, không có thật trong quá khứ

If only we had never met in that bus.
My mother wishes she had studied harder in college.
I would have married him if he had proposed to me.
You played with fire.  What if you had been raped?

TÀI LIỆU THAM KHẢO
British Council. Past Perfect.  Retrieved from https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/verbs/past-tense/past-perfect
Edufind.com. Past Perfect Tense.  Retrived from http://www.edufind.com/english-grammar/past-perfect-tense/
Englishpage.com. Past Perfect. Retrieved from http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/pastperfect.html